Transfer of Gaming
Evidence-based learning in serious gaming
How to optimize, measure and validate true learning effects of educational serious games
Serious gaming may reduce the cost of training, enhance job satisfaction and labor productivity, and thus may be a highly effective and satisfying tool for education. However, to what degree is this possible, what determines learning benefits and how can this be measured and proven? Transfer of gaming (ToG) of educational games concerns the degree to which skills, knowledge, and attitudes acquired by playing a game can be effectively used in real (practical, professional) situations. In this workpackage, methods for the determinantion of ToG are formulated and developed, as well as tools, guidelines and concepts affecting ToG.. In addition, experimental research is carried out to verify claims (e.g., concerning learning effects) and to test hypotheses (e.g., about cybersickness). This knowledge on (improvement of) ToG helps game designers and developers to build the right games for the right purposes.
A review of the literature has been carried out describing motivational and educational aspects of serious gaming as well as methodological aspects of ToG measurement. This work includes a taxonomy predicting effects of game characteristics on transfer of gaming and a Stepwise Reference Framework. This latter tool entails a stepwise approach for the design, specification and evaluation of serious games from a combined didactical and cost-effectiveness point of view.
Next to this theoretical study, several experimental studies have been carried out. Cybersickness represents sickness caused by viewing dynamic image content as generated by video games. In order to get more grip on this phenomenon several hypotheses have been formulated and experimentally tested and an explanatory framework was developed. Using a military tactical shooter game (VBS2) for platoons and their commanders, we have furthermore shown that students became more motivated and active learners and performed better, especially in military tactics. Finally, a transfer of training study was conducted in TNO's high-fidelity F-16 flight simulator. The results of this experiment show that Falcon 4.0 (a PC based F-16 flight game) gamers perform substantially better on all measured tasks compared to Microsoft Flight Simulator gamers and to non-flight gamers. The aforementioned results provides rules, principles and tools for an adequate evaluation method aimed at measuring ToG and improving ToG in educational programs.
Next to the training of typical perceptual-motor or procedural skills, serious gaming may also be very beneficial for enhancing motivation, engagement and typical professional attitudes. Therefore, after having analyzed the complete set of data of the Falcon 4.0 study, we will further extend on this ToG study. In collaboration with the Open University new tools to measure the performance of the F16 gamers will be developed and applied. These tools measure performance on different behavioral scales, such as flow, situational awareness and engagement. Based on theoretical analyses and previous observations we expect to find that certain (but not all) task aspects of this very complicated professional job, i.e., the execution of coordinated 16 fighter jet missions, will show substantial transfer from the game to "real" task. In addition we will further work on publication and disseminationof the results and conclusions.
4.4 Transfer of Gaming
Toet, A et al (2008). Cybersickness and desktop simulations: field of view effects and user experience, in: JJ Güell, M Uijt de Haag (Eds.), Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 2008, SPIE-6957. The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, USA (2008) pp 69570P-1 - 69570P-11.
Bos, J.E. et al (2010). The effect of internal and external field of view on visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics 41, pp 516-521.
Korteling J.E. et al Report TNO-DV2010, TNO Human factors (in press).
Hans Korteling, TNO-Human Factors, Soesterberg